Manhattan Project – Who built the bombs used on Japan? An article makes a point to be examined …

July 16, 2013   ·   0 Comments

In the world there are not many things that are considered indisputable. Well, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, you will, I think, in the course. And that the moon revolves around the earth – as well. And what about the fact that the Americans were the first to build an atomic bomb, and ahead of the Germans, and Russian.
I thought so, until about four years ago, I did not get into the hands of a vintage magazine. My beliefs about the sun and the moon, he left alone, but the faith in the American leadership has shaken quite seriously. It was a rotund is in German – filing magazine “Theoretical Physics” for 1938. I do not remember why I reached there, but quite unexpectedly came across an article of Professor Otto Hahn.

Манхэтенский обман The name was familiar to me well. That Hahn, the famous German physicist and radiochemist, opened in 1938, together with other prominent scholars – Fritz Shtrausman – the division of the uranium nucleus is actually by launching work on the creation of nuclear weapons. At first I just ran an article looking at a diagonal, but then the unexpected phrase made me become closer. And in the end – even forget what I had originally picked up this magazine.

Article from Hahn has been devoted to the review of nuclear power development in the different countries of the world. In fact, the survey was nothing special: all except Germany, nuclear studies were in the limbo. They did not see much point. “This is not an abstract matter has nothing to do with the needs of the public,” – said about the same time, the Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, when he was asked to support the British atomic research budget money. “Let those who wear glasses, scientists are also looking for money from the state is full of other problems!” – So says in the 30 years the majority of world leaders. Except, of course, the Nazis, who just nuclear program funded.

But it is not the passage of Chamberlain, carefully cited by Hahn, attracted my attention. England generally not too interested in this author. Much more interesting was the fact that Hahn has written about the state of nuclear research in the United States. And he wrote the following:
If we talk about the country in which the processes of nuclear fission is paid the least attention, it should certainly be called the United States. Of course, now I do not see Brazil or the Vatican. However, among the developed countries, even communist Russia and Italy are far ahead of the United States. Problems in Theoretical Physics on the other side of the ocean has received little attention, priority is given to application development that can provide immediate returns. So I can say with confidence that in the next decade, North Americans will not be able to do anything significant for the development of atomic physics.

At first I just laughed. Wow, how wrong my compatriot! And then wondered anyway, Otto Hahn was a simpleton or a cheerleader. On the state of atomic research, he was well informed, especially since before the Second World War, this topic was discussed freely in academic circles.

Maybe Americans are misinformed the world? But to what end? On the nuclear weapons in the 30 years no one has ever dreamed of. Moreover, most scientists considered impossible to create it in principle. That is why until 1939 all new developments in atomic physics, instantly recognized the world – they are openly published in scientific journals. No one is hiding the fruits of their labor, on the contrary, among the different groups of scientists (almost exclusively Germans) came open competition – who will move forward faster?
Maybe scientists in the United States ahead of the whole world, and therefore kept their achievements in secret? Not a bad assumption. To confirm or deny it, we have to consider the history of the U.S. atomic bomb – at least, such as it appears in official publications. We are all used to take it for granted as a matter of course. However, upon closer inspection, it is so much weirdness and inconsistencies that just amazed.

Every little helps – U.S. bomb

Nineteen forty-second year started well for the British. The invasion of the Germans on their small island, which seemed imminent, now, as if by magic, has receded into the misty distance. Last summer, Hitler made a major mistake in my life – invaded Russia. This was the beginning of the end. Russian not only survived despite the hopes of the Berlin strategists and pessimistic forecasts many observers, but also gave the Wehrmacht well tough for a frosty winter. And in December, the British came to the aid of a large and powerful United States, which have now become an official ally. In general reason for joy was rife.
Not happy only a few high-ranking officials, who held the information that has received British intelligence. In late 1941, the British learned that the Germans had a frantic pace to develop their nuclear research. Became clear, and the ultimate goal of this process – a nuclear bomb. British nuclear scientists were competent enough to imagine what threat is a new weapon.

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At the same time, the British did not build illusions about its features. All the resources of the country were focused on basic survival. Although the Germans and the Japanese were busy with the war to his neck with Russian and Americans, they found occasional opportunity to poke his fist dilapidated building of the British Empire. From each of the butting rotten structure tottered and creaked, threatening to collapse. Three divisions of Rommel in North Africa pinned down most of the British battle-worthy army. Submarines Admiral Doenitz as predatory sharks in the Atlantic snooping around, threatening to interrupt the vital thread supply from overseas. Britain has simply not had the resources to start with the Germans in the nuclear arms race. The lag and it was great, but as soon as it threatened to become hopeless.

And then the British went the only way which promised at least some benefit. They decided to ask the Americans, who have the necessary resources and could throw money around. The British were willing to share their achievements, to speed up the process of establishing a common atomic bomb.

It must be said that the Americans reacted to such a gift at first skeptical. War Department can not realize why he spend the money on a malovrazumitelny project. What is there still a new weapon? Here’s aircraft carrier groups and fleets of heavy bombers – yes, that is strength. A nuclear bomb, and that the scientists themselves are very vague – it is just an abstraction, old wives’ tales. Had the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to appeal directly to the American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the request literally pleading not reject English gift. Roosevelt summoned the scholars to understand the issue and gave the nod.

Typically, the creators of the canonical legends about the American bomb used this incident to highlight the wisdom of Roosevelt. Here, look, what a shrewd president! We look at it a little different way: what is the pen were the Yankees atomic research if they so long and stubbornly refused to cooperate with the British! So Gan was absolutely right in his assessment of U.S. nuclear experts – anything solid they are not represented.
In September 1942 it was decided to start work on the atomic bomb. Organizing period took some time, and really the case has moved forward only with the advent of the new, 1943. From the work of the army led by General Leslie Groves (later he would write his memoirs, which detail the official version of what was happening), a real leader was Professor Robert Oppenheimer. On it I will detail a little later, but for now just look at another interesting detail – how to form a team of scientists who began work on the bomb.

In fact, when Oppenheimer suggested recruit specialists, the choice had been extremely low. Good nuclear physicists in the United States could be counted on the fingers of a crippled hand. Therefore, a professor made a wise decision – to collect the people he knows personally and who can be trusted, regardless of what field of physics they did before. So it was that the lion’s share of seats was occupied by employees of the District of Columbia University Manhattan (by the way, which is why the project was called the Manhattan). But these forces was not enough. To work had to involve British scientists literally devastated British research centers, and even professionals from Canada. In general, the Manhattan project turned into a kind of Tower of Babel, with the only difference being that all the participants spoke more or less the same language. However, this did not save from conventional welding in the scientific community and squabbles that have arisen due to the rivalry of different research groups. Echoes of these tensions can be found in the pages of Groves, and they look very funny: General, on the one hand, wants to convince the reader that it was ceremoniously and order, and on the other – show off how smart he was able to completely reconcile quarreling scientific bodies.

And now we are told that in this friendly environment of large terrarium Americans succeeded in two and a half years to build an atomic bomb. And the Germans, who have fun together and pored over its nuclear project five years, this was not possible. Miracles and only.
However, even if there are no squabbles no such record time still would cause suspicion. The fact that during the study should take certain steps, which are almost impossible to cut. The Americans attribute their success to a huge funding – in the long run on the Manhattan Project had spent more than two billion dollars! However, no matter how you feed a pregnant woman, it still will not be able to have a full-term baby earlier than nine months. Same thing with the nuclear project: to significantly speed up, for example, the process of uranium enrichment is not possible.

The Germans worked five years at full pressure. Of course, there were their mistakes and miscalculations that took away precious time. But who said that the Americans have errors and miscalculations were not? There were, moreover a lot. One of those mistakes was the involvement of the famous physicist Niels Bohr.

Unknown operation Skorzeny

British secret services are very fond of boasting one of its operations. It’s about saving from Nazi Germany, the great Danish scientist Niels Bohr.
The official legend has it that after the outbreak of the Second World War, the eminent physicist quiet and peaceful living in Denmark, leading quite reclusive. The Nazis are many times offered him cooperation, but has repeatedly refused to Bor. By 1943, the Germans still decided to arrest him. But, warned in time, Niels Bohr was able to flee to Sweden, from where the British took him to the bomb bay of a heavy bomber. By the end of the year was a physicist in America and began to earnestly work for the Manhattan Project.

Манхэтенский обман Legend beautiful and romantic, it’s just sewn with white thread and can not withstand any checks. Reliability it is no more than a fairy tale by Charles Perrault. First, because the Nazis look at her complete idiot, and so they have never been. Think again! In 1940, the Germans occupied Denmark. They know that the country is living Nobel laureate, who could give them a great help in the work on the atomic bomb. That of the atomic bomb, which is vital for victory in Germany. And what do they do? They are for three years to a scientist occasionally visited by a polite knock on the door and quietly asked, “Herr Bor, you do not want to work for the benefit of the Fuehrer and Reich? Do not you? Okay, we’ll go back later still. “ No, this was the style of the German secret service! Logically, they should not have been arrested Bora in 1943, and another in 1940. If it turns out – to force (ie force, not to beg!) To work for them – if not, at least make sure that he was not able to work for the enemy: to put in a concentration camp or destroyed. And they leave it easy to walk free, under the noses of the British.

Three years later – the story goes – until the Germans finally comes that they are supposed to arrest the scientist. But then someone (just one, because I found no indication as to who did it) Bora warns of impending danger. Who could it be? In the habits of the Gestapo did not go screaming at each corner of the arrest. People were taking quiet, suddenly, at night. So, a mysterious patron Bora – one of the very senior officials.
Let us leave this mysterious angel savior in peace and will continue to analyze the journey of Niels Bohr. So, the scientist fled to Sweden. What do you think, how? On a fishing boat, the boat going around in a fog of German Coast Guard? On-hewn planks of the raft? Certainly not! Boron with the greatest possible comfort sailed to Sweden on a very common private boat, officially called at the port of Copenhagen.

Let us not puzzle over the question of how the Germans fired scientist, if were going to arrest him. Let us think better about this. Escape from the world-famous physicist – is an extraordinary event of a very serious scale. On this occasion, must inevitably be investigated – would fly the heads of those who proshlyapil physics, as well as a mysterious patron. However, no trace of such an investigation to discover simply was not possible. Maybe because it was not.
Indeed, how much value represented by Niels Bohr to develop the atomic bomb?

Born in 1885 and became a Nobel laureate in 1922, Bohr turned to nuclear physics only in the 30s. At that time he was already a large, established scholars with well-formed views. Such people rarely succeed in the areas where we need innovation and thinking outside the box – that is such an area was a nuclear physicist. For several years, Bohr and failed to make any significant contribution to nuclear research. However, as the ancients said, the first half of his life in the name of the person works, the second – in the name of the person. At the Niels Bohr, this second half has started. Having been engaged in nuclear physics, he automatically became regarded as a major specialist in this field, regardless of their actual achievements. But in Germany, where he worked such world-renowned nuclear physicists, as Hahn and Heisenberg, the real price of Danish scientist knew. That is why it is not particularly active in trying to attract jobs. Place – well, trumpeted to the world that we work very Niels Bohr. It will not work – well, too, will not be confused with the feet under his authority.

By the way, in the United States Bor largely just underfoot. The fact that the great physicist did not believe in the possibility of building a nuclear bomb. At the same time, his reputation forced to reckon with his opinion. If you believe the memoirs of Groves, who worked in the Manhattan Project scientists belonged to the Bor as an elder. Now imagine that you do some complicated job without any confidence in the ultimate success. And then someone comes up to you, who do you think an expert, and says that your occupation is not even worth wasting time. It is easier to go to work? I do not think.

In addition, Bohr was a convinced pacifist. In 1945, when the States already had the atomic bomb, he strongly protested against its use. Respectively, and their attitude to work at low pressure. Therefore I appeal once again to wonder what more brought Bor – movement or stagnation in the development of the issue?

Strange composed picture, is not it? It has become a little clearer after I found out one interesting detail, it would seem nothing to do with Niels Bohr, nor to the atomic bomb is not available. This is the “main saboteur Third Reich” by Otto Skorzeny.
It is believed that the rise of Skorzeny began when in 1943 he was released from prison the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Planted in a mountain prison his former colleagues, Mussolini could not, it would seem, to hope for release. But Skorzeny on the direct orders of Hitler developed a daring plan: to make a landing in gliders and then fly to the small airplane. Everything turned out as well as possible: Mussolini at large, Skorzeny was held in high esteem.

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At least, so says the majority. Only a few well-informed historians know that there are mixed up cause and effect. Skorzeny was asked an extremely difficult and responsible task, precisely because Hitler had trusted him. That is, the rise of the “King of special operations” began to stories with the rescue of Mussolini. However, not long – a couple of months. Skorzeny was promoted to the rank and position at a time when Niels Bohr escaped to England. Reasons for the increase I could not find anywhere else.

So, we have three facts. First, the Germans did not prevent the exit of Niels Bohr in Britain. Second, Bohr brought the Americans more harm than good. Third, immediately after the scientist was in England, Skorzeny gets promoted. What if it’s the details of one mosaic? I decided to try to reconstruct the events.

Capturing Denmark, the Germans well imagine that Niels Bohr is unlikely to have help in the creation of the atomic bomb. Moreover, it will probably interfere. So they left him to live peacefully in Denmark, under the very noses of the British. Perhaps even then the Germans hoped that the British kidnapped scientist. In the three years the British did not dare take that whatsoever.
In late 1942, the Germans began to reach vague rumors about the beginning of a large-scale project to build the American atomic bomb. Even given the secrecy of the project, save the awl in a sack was absolutely impossible: instant disappearance of hundreds of scientists from different countries in one way or another connected with nuclear research, was to touch up any mentally normal person to such conclusions. The Nazis were convinced that far ahead of the Yankees (which is true), but to do nasty enemy that did not stop. And in early 1943 conducted one of the most secret operations of German intelligence agencies.

On the threshold of the house there is a kind of Niels Bohr’s well-wisher, who informs him that his arrest and want to throw in a concentration camp, and offers his help. A scientist agrees – no other way it does not have to be behind barbed wire – not a good prospect. At the same time the British, apparently slips linden’s full indispensability and uniqueness Bora in nuclear research. British peck – and what can they do if the catch itself goes into their hands, that is in Sweden? And to take out full of heroism Bora from there in the belly of the bomber, although they could comfortably send it by ship.

And then Nobel laureate appears in the midst of the Manhattan Project, producing the effect of a bomb. That is, if the Germans were able to bomb the research center at Los Alamos, the effect would be about the same. Work has slowed, though significantly. Apparently, Americans are not immediately aware of how they cheated, and when they realized it was too late.
And do you still believe in the fact that the Yankees themselves have designed the atomic bomb?

The mission of “Alsos”

Personally, I finally refused to believe in these stories, after detailed study of the activities of the “Alsos”. The operation of U.S. intelligence for years kept secret – until then, until gone to a better place its main participants. It was only later came to light information – though fragmentary and disjointed – about how Americans hunted for the German atomic secrets.

However, if thoroughly work on this information and compare it with some well-known facts, the picture is very compelling. But I will not get ahead of ourselves. Thus, the group “Alsos” was formed in 1944, on the eve of the Anglo-American landings in Normandy. Half of the members of the group – professional scouts, half – nuclear scientists. At the same time, to form a “Alsos” was mercilessly robbing the Manhattan Project – in fact there were taken the best specialists. The task of the mission was to gather information on the German atomic program. The question is, just how desperate Americans in the success of his undertaking, if made a major bet to steal the atomic bomb from the Germans?
Desperate great if you remember a little-known letter from one of the Atomic Scientists to his colleague. It was written February 4, 1944, and stated:
We seem to have got into a bad job. The project was not moving any closer. Our leaders, in my opinion, does not believe in the success of the whole endeavor. And we do not believe. If it were not for the huge money that we pay here, I think many would have long been engaged in something more useful.

This letter was given at the time as evidence of American talents: behold, they say, what we’re good for about a year pulled a hopeless project! Then, in the United States realized that not only fools around live, and hurried to forget about a piece of paper. I am with great difficulty managed to dig up this old dokumentik in a scientific journal.

To ensure the actions of the “Alsos” spared no expense and effort. She was perfectly equipped with everything necessary. The head of the mission, Colonel Pash was carrying a document from the Secretary of Defense Henry Stimson, which obliged each and every group to provide all possible assistance. This authorization was not even Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower. Incidentally, the commander in chief – he was obliged to take into account in the planning of military operations, the interests of the mission, “Alsos”, that is to capture in the first place, those areas where there may be a German atomic weapons.

In early August 1944, to be exact – on the 9th, the group “Alsos” landed in Europe. The supervisor of the mission was named one of the top U.S. nuclear scientists – Dr. Samuel Goudsmit. Before the war, he maintained close ties with German colleagues, and the Americans had hoped that the “international solidarity” Scientists will be stronger political interests.
The first results of the “Alsos” was achieved after the fall of 1944, the Americans occupied Paris. Here Goudsmit met with the famous French scientist Professor Joliot-Curie. Seemed genuinely happy Curie defeat of the Germans, but as soon as it came to the German nuclear program, it goes into a “nesoznanku.” The Frenchman insisted that he knew nothing, heard nothing, and the Germans did not come close to developing an atomic bomb and all their nuclear project is entirely peaceful. It was clear that the professor not telling anything. But the pressure on him there was no way – for collaborating with the Germans in what was then French shot despite the scientific merits and death of Curie clearly feared the most. So Goudsmit had to leave empty-handed. For the duration of his stay in Paris before he ever heard vague but alarming rumors in Leipzig explosion “uranium bomb” in the mountains of Bavaria marked strange flash in the night. Everything pointed to the fact that the Germans were not very close to creating a nuclear weapon, it has not created it.
What happened then is still somewhat mysterious. They say Pasha Goudsmit and still managed to find in Paris some valuable information. At least since November Eisenhower constantly getting calls to move forward on the territory of Germany, at any cost. The initiators of these requirements – now it’s clear! – Ultimately proved to people associated with the nuclear project and receive information directly from the band “Alsos”. Eisenhower had no real ability to meet the orders received, but the requirements of Washington became more stringent. It is not known what would it ended, if the Germans had not made another surprise move.

Battle of the Bulge mystery

In fact, by the end of 1944 everyone believed that Germany would lose the war. The only question is, at what time the Nazis were defeated. Another view was held, it seems, only Hitler and his closest entourage. They sought to delay until the last moment of the catastrophe.

Манхэтенский обман This desire is understandable. Hitler was convinced that it will be announced after the war criminal, and will be judged. And if you play for time, you can achieve a quarrel between the Russian and Americans and eventually get away with it, that is, from the war. Not without loss, of course, but without losing power.

Let’s think: what was it needs at a time when the forces of Germany have had nothing at all? Of course, you can spend them as more economical to keep a flexible defense. And Hitler at the end of the 44th casts his army in a very wasteful Ardennes offensive. What for? The troops are put completely unrealistic task – to break to Amsterdam and reset the Anglo-Americans in the sea. To Amsterdam German tanks were at the time as the moon walk, the more so in their fuel tanks lapped less than half way. Scare the allies? But that could scare perfectly fed and armed army, behind which was the industrial might of the United States?

In general, there is still no historian could not clearly explain why Hitler was to attack it. Usually everyone ends reasoning that Hitler was an idiot. But in fact, Hitler was not an idiot, what is more, it is up to the end of thought quite sensibly and realistically. Idiots possible to call those historians who make snap judgments without even trying to understand something.

But take a look at the other side of the front. There are happening even more amazing things! And it’s not that the Germans were able to achieve the original, however, rather limited success. The fact that the British and Americans really scared! And fright was totally inadequate threat. After all, from the outset it was clear that the Germans had little strength that the offensive is local … But no, and Eisenhower and Churchill and Roosevelt downright panic! In 1945, 6 January, when the Germans were stopped and even pushed back, the British prime minister says Russian leader Stalin panic letter in which requires immediate assistance. Here is the text of the letter:
The West is very heavy fighting, and at any time from the Supreme Command may require larger solutions. You know from your own experience, how worrying is the situation when you have to defend a very broad front, after a temporary loss of initiative. General Eisenhower’s great desire and need to know in general terms what you plan to do, as it is, of course, affects all his and our major decisions. According to the message received, our emissary, Air Chief Marshal Tedder, was last night in Cairo, weather-bound. His journey has been much delayed through no fault of your own. If he has not reached you yet, I will be grateful if you could let me know if we can count on a major Russian offensive on the Vistula front, or anywhere else for January and any other points that you may care to mention. I shall not pass this highly classified information, with the exception of Field Marshal Brooke and General Eisenhower, and only under conditions of the utmost secrecy. I consider the matter as urgent.

If you translate from the diplomatic language on a regular, Escape, Stalin – we will beat! This is another mystery. What is the “beat” if the Germans were driven back to the starting line? Yes, of course, the American offensive, scheduled for January, had to be moved in the spring. So what? Should be glad that the Nazis had squandered his strength in senseless attacks!
And more. Churchill slept and saw how to keep the Russian in Germany. And now he’s literally begging them not to delay start moving west! This is to what extent was scared of Sir Winston Churchill? It seems that the slowdown in advance deep into Germany’s allies interpreted it as a death threat. I wonder why? After all, no fool, nor alarmist Churchill was not.

Nevertheless, the following two months the Anglo-Americans spend in a terrible nervous tension. Subsequently, they will be carefully concealed it, but the truth still breaks through to the surface in their memoirs. For example, Eisenhower after the war call last winter of the war as “the most worrying time.” What is so worried marshal, if the war was actually won? Only in March 1945 began the Ruhr operation, during which the Allies occupied West Germany, surrounding 300,000 Germans. The commander of the German troops in the area Field Marshal Model shot (the only one of all the German generals, by the way). Only after that Churchill and Roosevelt, more or less calmed down.

Atomic finale

But back to the group “Alsos”. In the spring of 1945, it increased markedly. During the operation the Ruhr scientists and explorers moved forward almost behind the vanguard of the advancing troops, collecting valuable crop. In March and April of them fall into the hands of many of the scientists involved in the German nuclear research. A crucial finding was made in mid-April – 12 th of the mission wrote that stumbled “on a real gold mine” and now they “learn about the project in the main.” By May, in the hands of the Americans were and Heisenberg, and Gan, and Osenberg and Dibner, and many other prominent German physicists. Nevertheless, the group “Alsos” continued to actively seek to have defeated Germany … to the end of May.

But at the end of May is a funny thing. The search for almost interrupted. Rather, they continue, but with much less intensity. If before they were engaged leading scientists from around the world, now – beardless laboratory. A large crowd packed things scientists and depart for America. Why?

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To answer this question, let’s look at what occurred next. In late June, Americans spend atomic bomb test – reportedly the first in the world. And in early August, dropping two on the Japanese cities. After that finished atomic bombs from the Yankees to an end, and for quite a long time.

A strange situation, is not it? Let’s start with the fact that between the tests and combat use of the new super-weapon is just a month. Dear readers, this does not happen. To make an atomic bomb is much more complicated than the usual shell or rocket. This month it’s just impossible. Then, perhaps, the Americans made three prototypes at once? Also unlikely. Making a nuclear bomb – a very expensive procedure. There is no reason to make three if not sure what you’re doing the right thing. Otherwise one could build three nuclear project to build three research centers and so on. Even the United States is not so rich as to show such profligacy.

However, well, let’s say Americans really built three prototypes at once. Why do not they have immediately after a successful trial run nuclear bombs into production? Indeed, immediately after the defeat of Germany, the Americans found themselves facing a much more powerful and formidable opponent – Russian. Russian, of course, did not threaten the U.S. war, but they interfered with the Americans to become masters of the planet. And this, from the point of view of the Yankees, a completely unacceptable crime.

Nevertheless, the new U.S. nuclear bombs in there … when do you think? In autumn of 1945? In the summer of 1946? No! Only in 1947 in the American arsenal began to receive the first nuclear weapons! That date, you will not find anywhere else, but no one to refute it undertakes. The data that I was able to get absolutely secret. However, they are fully supported by what we know about the subsequent build a nuclear arsenal. And most importantly – the results of the tests in the deserts of Texas, which took place at the end of 1946.

Yes, dear reader, that at the end of 1946, and not a month earlier. Data were extracted on this Russian exploration and hit me very hard way, which probably does not make sense to disclose in these pages not to place people who helped me. On the eve of the new, 1947 on board the Soviet leader Stalin went to a very interesting report, which I will mention here verbatim.

According to the agent, Felix, in November-December this year in El Paso, Texas, conducted a series of nuclear explosions. In this case, the prototypes were tested nuclear bombs, similar to those that were dropped on the Japanese islands last year. Within a half months have been tested at least four bombs, three trials were unsuccessful. This series of bombs was created in preparation for large-scale industrial production of nuclear weapons. Most likely, the beginning of this issue need to wait until mid-1947.

Russian agent has fully confirmed the available data I have. But maybe all of this – misinformation on the part of U.S. intelligence? Hardly. In those years, the Yankees were trying to convince their opponents that they are stronger than anyone in the world, and would not have to downplay its military capabilities. Rather, we are dealing with a carefully concealed truth.

What do we have? In 1945, the Americans dropped three bombs – all successfully. The following tests – the same bombs! – Are one and a half years later, not too successfully. Series production begins in six months, and we do not know – and may never know – as far as the atomic bomb, which appeared in the American army supplies, consistent with its terrible purpose, that is, how well they were.

Such a picture can paint only in one case, namely, if the first three atomic bombs – the ones forty-five years – were built by the Americans is not their own, and received from someone. To put it bluntly – the Germans. Indirectly, this confirms the hypothesis of a reaction to the bombing of German scholars of Japanese cities, about which we know thanks to the book by David Irving.

“Poor old Professor Gang!”

In August 1945, ten of the leading German nuclear physicists, ten protagonists of “nuclear project” of the Nazis were in captivity in the United States. Of them pulled all the information (I wonder why, if you believe the American version of the Yankees far ahead of the Germans in atomic research). Accordingly, the scientists were kept in a such a comfortable prison. It was in this prison and radio.

Sixth of August at seven o’clock in the evening, Otto Hahn and Karl Wirtz turned the radio. It was then in the next release of the news they heard that on Japan dropped the first atomic bomb. The first reaction of colleagues, which they have brought this information was clear: this can not be true. Heisenberg believed that the Americans could not develop nuclear weapons (and, as we now know, was right). “There was mention of the Americans the word” uranium “in connection with his new bomb?” – He said Ghana. The latter replied in the negative. “Then it has nothing to do with the atom” – Heisenberg cut. Eminent physicist believed that the Yankees were just using some sort of high-power explosives.
However, the nine-hour newscast dispelled all doubts. Obviously, up to that time the Germans simply did not anticipate that the Americans managed to capture several German nuclear bombs. But now the situation is cleared up, and scientists have begun to torment the pangs of conscience. Yes, yes, that’s right! Dr. Erich Bagge wrote in his diary:
Now the bomb used against Japan. They report that even after a few hours of the bombed city hidden in smoke and dust. It is about the death of 300,000 people. Poor old Professor Gang!

Moreover, the scientists strongly night worrying about how to be “poor man Gang” did not commit suicide. Two physicists were on duty at his bedside late to prevent him to kill herself, and went to their rooms until they discovered that their colleague finally slept soundly. Gang himself later described his experience:
For a while I had thought of having to throw into the sea all the uranium in order to avoid a similar catastrophe in the future. Although I felt personally responsible for what happened, I wondered whether I was right or anyone else to deprive humanity of all those fruits that can bring a new discovery? And now this terrible bomb has worked!

I wonder if the Americans are telling the truth, and had fallen on Hiroshima bomb did they have created themselves, why should the Germans feel “personal responsibility” for what happened? Of course, each of them has contributed to nuclear research, but for the same reason could be assigned some of the blame for thousands of scientists, including Newton and Archimedes! After all, their discovery eventually led to the creation of nuclear weapons!

Mental anguish of German scientists make sense only in one case. That is – if they themselves created that bomb, which killed hundreds of thousands of Japanese. Otherwise, why should they suffer for their actions by the Americans?

However, while all of my conclusions were nothing more than a hypothesis confirmed only by circumstantial evidence. What if I’m wrong and the Americans really managed the impossible? To answer this question, we need to closely examine the German nuclear program. And it’s not as easy as it seems.

Author Hans-Ulrich von Kranz, the Third Reich’s secret weapon
TW; automatic translation from Russian


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